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Cubism

1910 — 1930
Vase, Palette, and Mandolin, 1944

"We only wanted to express what was in us..."

"When we discovered Cubism, we did not have the aim of discovering Cubism. We only wanted to express what was in us... The goal I proposed myself in making cubism? To paint and nothing more... with a method linked only to my thought... Neither the good nor the true; neither the useful nor the useless." - Pablo Picasso

Paul Cézanne said that painting was painful to him — that the intensity of the real world beat on his senses. And true to his word, Cézanne’s paintings often vibrate with color — a simple still life with apples look like they might shake themselves off the canvas.

In 1907, a year after Cézanne’s death, Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque visited a posthumous retrospective of the impressionist giant at the Salon d'Automne. Cézanne’s simple and intense forms made a powerful impression on Picasso and Braque, and over the next three years they began a series of experiments to push their artwork even further. As usual, Picasso kicked things off with a bang, shocking his friends and compatriots with Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, a portrait of five prostitutes in aggressive postures with bodies distorted to near abstraction. Braque countered with landscapes where pyramids and cubes replaced the trees. It was Braque’s landscapes that caught the eye of the French art critic Louis Vauxcelles — who describes the work as reducing the world to ‘geometric outlines, to cubes’ coining the now famous term. Braque and Picasso were officially ‘Cubists.’

Like many new ideas, cubism evolved very quickly at first. At first, Picasso and Braque’s explorations were figurative — it was still possible to discern the person or object that was being exploded into geometry. Other artists began to catch on, Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, and Piet Mondrian all contributed to the new movement.

But Picasso and Braque were in the zone, and as cubism grew in popularity the two artists pushed it to its conceptual limits. Living in the bohemian Paris neighborhood of Montmartre, Picasso and Braque worked so closely it’s still nearly impossible to distinguish one artist's work from the other. They explored cubism like scientists, reducing it to its essence, now referred to as ‘Analytical Cubism’. Muted fields of geometric shapes and shadow in browns and grays.

By 1913, Cubism was evolving again. In Russia, avant-garde painters Liobov Popova and Natalie Goncharova were pushing cubism toward new forms of expression: Suprematism and Rayonism. And Picasso and Braque were integrating collage, adding snippets of newspaper in simpler compositions that came to be called Synthetic Cubism.

Perhaps more than any movement before, cubism was a catalyst. The idea of using geometry to see an object from many angles at once forced artists to question how they saw their subjects, a question that drives artists to this day.

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Les Demoiselles d'Avignon

Pablo Picasso, 1907

Woman with Phlox

Albert Gleizes, 1910

Woman in an Armchair

Pablo Picasso, 1909-1910

Girl with a Mandolin (Fally Tellier)

Pablo Picasso, 1910

Le Bal élégant, La Danse à la campagne.

Marie Laurencin, 1910

Portrait de Jacques Nayral

Albert Gleizes, 1911

Tea Time

Jean Metzinger, 1911

Gray Tree

Piet Mondrian, 1911

I and the Village

Marc Chagall, 1911

The Passage from Virgin to Bride

Marcel Duchamp, 1912

Nude

Piet Mondrian, 1911-1912

Portrait of Albert Gleizes

Jean Metzinger, 1912

I condemn without hesitation the position of the Knave of Diamonds, which has replaced creative activity with theorizing.

Cubism — a Diatribe

Natalia Goncharova, 1912

There is nothing real outside ourselves; there is nothing real except the coincidence of a sensation and an individual mental direction.

Excerpts from Du "Cubisme"

Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, 1912

Harvest Threshing

Albert Gleizes, 1912

Dancer

Gino Severini, 1912

Man on a Balcony

Albert Gleizes, 1912

The Rider

Jean Metzinger, 1911-1912

Plastic Synthesis Of Movements Of A Woman

Luigi Russolo, 1912

Woman with a Fan - 1912

Jean Metzinger, 1912

Self-Portrait with Straw Boater

Gino Severini, 1912

La Plume Jaune

Jean Metzinger, 1912

Still Life with Ginger Jar 1

Piet Mondrian, 1912

Dancer in a Café

Jean Metzinger, 1912

The Smokers

Fernand Henri Léger, 1911-1912

Still Life with Ginger Jar 2

Piet Mondrian, 1912

Female Figure

Piet Mondrian, 1911-1912

Illustration for Souz Molodyozhi

Olga Rozanova, 1913

Football Players

Albert Gleizes, 1912-1913

The Knife Grinder or 'Principle of Glittering'

Kazimir Malevich, 1912-1913

Composition in Grey Blue

Piet Mondrian, 1912-1913

Illustration for Souz Molodyozhi

Olga Rozanova, 1913

Composition No. 3

Piet Mondrian, 1912-1913

Peasants Gathering Grapes

Natalia Goncharova, 1913

The Cyclist

Natalia Goncharova, 1913

House + Light + Sky Movement

Luigi Russolo, 1913

Unique Forms of Continuity in Space

Umberto Boccioni, 1913

Man with a Pipe

Jean Metzinger, 1913

Nude Model in the Studio

Fernand Henri Léger, 1912-1913

Composition with Figures

Liubov Popova, 1913

Woman with a Fan

Jean Metzinger, 1913

Man in a Hammock

Albert Gleizes, 1913

Curtain for Le Coq d'Or: Third Act

Natalia Goncharova, 1914

Cards and Dice

Georges Braque, 1914

Set design for 'Le Coq d'Or'

Natalia Goncharova, 1914

Pier and Ocean

Piet Mondrian, 1914

Interventionist Demonstration

Carlo Carrà, 1914

Femmes assises à une fenêtre

Albert Gleizes, 1914

Paysage Cubiste (Landscape, Baum und Fluss)

Albert Gleizes, 1914

Visual Synthesis of the Idea: "War"

Gino Severini, 1914
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Suprematism
Taking refuge in the square.

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