ObeliskObelisk Art History

Age of Exploration

Trans-continental travel and the enlightenment

When you're looking at some “old paintings” chances are pretty good these artworks sit somewhere in a wide, loose slice of the timeline called by many names: Age of Discovery, the Contact Period, or the Age of Exploration. Leonardo da Vinci and the Vitruvian man? Yep he’s in there. Hokusai and his Great Wave? Definitely. Like most efforts to slice up history into clean lines, the Age of Exploration is a flawed, blurry concept—but its unifying theme is travel.

There was no single invention or political maneuver that kicked off the Age of Exploration, rather, many innovations, technologies and techniques came to together to enable global travel, at first slowly, and then accelerating faster and faster into the first true global networks. For millennia, travel over land had been arduous and dangerous, and without sophisticated navigational tools, sea trade had largely stayed close to shore. When explorers returned with tales of far off lands bringing stories and exotic treasures, it was exciting, but it didn't change the economy, it didn't change culture. But with the proliferation of the magnetic compass, an already ancient Chinese invention, the evolution of ship design like the Portuguese caravel and the massive Chinese bao chuan treasure ships, the miraculous maps of Arab geographers like Muhammad al-Idrisi and many more right-place-right-time innovations—previously isolated cultures were connected by new trade routes, leading to an explosion of new media, new products, new culture.

It all ended badly of course, with European powers realizing they could extract more profit from the cultures they traded with if they colonized them, enslaving people and strip mining sacred artifacts like the Benin Bronzes. But for art, the impact of global contact was profound. New forms of expression, new sciences, new beliefs were suddenly on the table.

Reed Enger, "Age of Exploration, Trans-continental travel and the enlightenment," in Obelisk Art History, Published October 20, 2016; last modified August 13, 2021, http://arthistoryproject.com/timeline/age-of-discovery/.

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Italian Renaissance

Cultural rebirth though intellectual inquiry

1350-1500

Ming Dynasty

Orderly government and social stability

1368-1644

Kingdom of Kongo

500 years of spirit objects and power plays

1390-1891

Northern Renaissance

How Humanism beats down Feudalism with the printing press

1420-1650

Kingdom of Benin

Sculpting divine history

1440-1897

Spanish Renaissance

Religion and the laws of perspective.

1492-1600

Mughal Art

Power, sophistication, luxury and might.

1500-1800

Mannerism

Tension, distortion and ice-cold style

1520-1600

Baroque

The drama of deep color and shadow

1600-1725

Edo Period

Art, culture, and NO OUTSIDERS

1603-1868

Qing Dynasty

Benevolent emperors and the height of literature and art

1644-1912

Academic Art

Allegory, craft, and the unrelenting dictatorship of the Academy

1661-1900

The Enlightenment

Dare to Know

1685-1815

Western Esoteric Art

The best truth is secret truth

1690-1947

Rococo

Opulent, playful embrace of the ornate — 18th century swag.

1715-1774

Neoclassicism

Classical imagery, democratic ideals, and the bloody hands of change.

1760-1830
Next Era

Industrial Revolution

Mass production, the camera, and a return to nature

1800-1900

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