Obelisk Art History
Timeline of Art

Industrial Revolution
Mass production, the camera, and a return to nature

Industrial Revolution, Timeline of Art

In the first years of the nineteenth century, a series of mechanical inventions changed the course of human culture instantly and permanently. James Watt’s created a new form of steam engine, powering factories and launching international travel with more efficient steam ships. Eli Whitney’s cotton gin and Edmund Cartwright’s power loom created a massive textile boom, with exponentially faster production leading to a commoditization of a previously craft culture. Benjamin Huntsman’s crucible steel and James Neilson’s Hot blast furnace would make iron and steel the building materials of choice, ushing in the era of the skyscraper.

But as the factories filled, artists’ practice was radically and permanently changed by a very simple invention. In 1843, John Goffe Rand invented the tin paint tube. Where before paint was mixed in the studio and dried out quickly, preserving the paint in a tube allowed artists mobility for the first time. So, paradoxically, while the Industrial Revolution drew millions into cities and urban centers, it sent artists outside. Art of the Industrial Revolution tends to be pastoral, plein-aire, more often a reaction against the speed and metal of the industrial age. We see the birth of Romanticism, Impressionism, and the Hudson River School dedicated to the majesty of nature. With travel more affordable via steamship, artists travel around the globe, leading to the first blendings of cultural style and influence, but it would take nearly a hundred years and a world war to teach artists to embrace industrialization.

Reed Enger, "Industrial Revolution, Mass production, the camera, and a return to nature," in Obelisk Art History, Published October 20, 2016; last modified September 30, 2021, http://arthistoryproject.com/timeline/industrial-revolution/.

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Romanticism, Industrial Revolution


Artistic revolt against the Age of Enlightenment

Oceanic Art, Industrial Revolution

Oceanic Art

10,000 islands, 1800 cultures and languages

Orientalism, Industrial Revolution


The western fantasy

Hudson River School, Industrial Revolution

Hudson River School

An American fraternity of mountain worshipers

Early Photography, Industrial Revolution

Early Photography

Nature's pencil: light!

Barbizon School, Industrial Revolution

Barbizon School

A small village in France, a gathering of artists.

Pre Raphaelites, Industrial Revolution

Pre Raphaelites

Love-lorn teenagers drag art back to the future

Realism, Industrial Revolution


Truth, accuracy, and the absence of personal bias

Impressionism, Industrial Revolution


Light and movement as the crux of human perception

Meiji Art, Industrial Revolution

Meiji Art

The end of feudalism begins with the search for knowledge

Early Modernism, Industrial Revolution

Early Modernism

Tradition be damned.

Post-Impressionism, Industrial Revolution


Beyond nature, toward emotional simplicity.

Next Era
Modernism, Timeline of Art


World wars and the rejection of tradition


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