Head of a Ruler


Poetry, war, and the invention of law

The Invention of Writing

The invention of written language is perhaps the most important milestone in human history, and we owe it to the accountants. Mesopotamia was a wild place at the dawn of the Bronze age. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers created a fertile stripe of perfect agricultural land arcing from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. Human civilization had flourished since the development of metal tools around 4500 B.C., and the potter’s spinning wheel had recently made storage and trade of agricultural produce possible. In this hotbed of development, trade between Mesopotamia’s many emerging city-states became a staple of the urbanizing culture, and so around 3000 B.C. we see the first examples of the written word — as receipts.

Storage vessels were sealed with clay, and stamped with marks of ownership, and cylinder seals were rolled into clay tablets to designate the quantities of sheep or grain to be exchanged. This earliest form of writing is known now as cuneiform, and while the earliest writings recorded transactions, it was quickly adapted to the recording of ideas. Luckily for historians, cuneiform was finally deciphered successfully by the French scholar Eugène Burnouf in 1836 — opening the nearly two million discovered cuneiform tablets to translation. Only a fraction of these writings have been translated, but already we've found stories, prayers, poetry and songs of the Mesopotamian world.

War, celebrity and social order

The rich and rapid social growth of the Mesopotamian city states brought war. From 3000 B.C. to the region’s final conquest by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C., Mesopotamia was awash in bloody conflict. To understand the politics of the time, it’s important to understand the geography. Mesopotamia was home to many urban centers, each home to their own unique culture and lineage of kings. Surrounding these cities was farmland, kept fertile by irrigation ditches — so the more farmland and irrigation a city controlled, the more powerful it became. For 3000 years these city’s fought, traded, taxed and murdered each other. For 1000 years the Sumerians from Sumer were dominant, until temporary defeat by the Akkadians from Akkad. Babylon would rise to power in 1900 B.C. and competed with the Hittites from 1450-1200 B.C. And so on…

But in this violent, messy time some extraordinary things happened. In 2140 B.C., Gudea of Lagash, a Sumerian king, realized he could control his domain more effectively with words than with the sword. Gudea understood that stable power grows from order, so he funded massive public works — temples to the popular local gods Ningirsu, Nanshe, Ningishzida and Geshtinanna. These imposing structures emphasized the values of peace and religion, and reinforced the Gudea’s authority. Finally, and most brilliantly, Gudea commissioned small, moveable statues of himself to be delivered to cities across his kingdom, making his face a fixture throughout Mesopotamia and becoming the first superstar, the first celebrity.

380 years later the sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, would create another defining feature of human civilization — the first unified code of law. Engraved on a seven foot tall basalt stone the 282 laws establish terms of judgement for business transactions, proper wages, and relationships, including divorce and inheritance. The laws also defined a strict set of punishments for breaking the laws, including the now infamous lex talionis, or eye-for-an-eye system of retaliatory punishment. Hammurabi’s Law Code was not the first set of laws in Mesopotamia, but it was the first to be compiled by legal experts, reviewed, edited, and codified into a universal definition of law — setting a standard for governmental justice that’s in place to this day.

Reed Enger, "Mesopotamia, Poetry, war, and the invention of law," in Obelisk Art History, Published May 14, 2015; last modified July 20, 2019, http://arthistoryproject.com/timeline/the-ancient-world/mesopotamia/.

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Bull Head from Girsu (Telloh)

3000 BCE

Votive Figurines from Eshnunna

2700 BCE

In the midst of Umma Entemena overthrew Urlumma and killed him. He left behind 60 soldiers of his force dead on the bank of the canal.

The war for the Tigris and Euphrates canal

2500 BCE

Perforated plaque of Dudu

2450 BCE

The Eannatum Boulder

2450 BCE

Clay Nails - A Treaty of Fraternity

2400 BCE

Cone of Entemena

2400 BCE

Hinge inscripted with Entemena

2400 BCE

Silver Vase with Cuneiform

2400 BCE

Stele of the Vultures - Historical Side

2350 BCE

Stele of the Vultures - Mythological Side

2350 BCE

Inscription by Naram-Sin: Temple Construction

2250 BCE

Naram-Sin Rock Relief at Darband-iGawr

2250 BCE

Male Worshiper of Ninshubur

2250 BCE

Victory Stele of Naram-Sin

2230 BCE

Gudea cylinders

2125 BCE

I am Nin-jirsu. No country can bear my fierce stare, nobody escapes my outstretched arms.

The Building of Ningirsu's Temple - Cylinder A

2125 BCE

The day was for supplication, the night was for prayer. The moonlight ... early morning, its master.

The Building of Ningirsu's Temple - Cylinder B

2125 BCE

Head of Gudea

2144 BCE-2124 BCE

Gudea Diorite Sculpture

2120 BCE-2120 BCE

Dedication Nail

2100 BCE

The Epic of Gilgamesh

2100 BCE

Statue of Gudea

2090 BCE

"Wake me early in the morning, I must not be late, or my teacher will cane me."

Diary of a Scribe

2000 BCE

Divination Liver Model: Omen of siege

2000 BCE

Head of a Ruler

2300 BCE-2000 BCE

Lion of Mari

2000 BCE

Hymn to Iddin-Dagan

1950 BCE

Your kingship is good for the people. The people spend their days in abundance thanks to you.

A Praise Poem of Iddin-Dagan

1900 BCE

In order to find sweetness in the bed on the joyous coverlet, my lady bathes her holy thighs.

The Fertility Ritual of Inana and Iddin-Dagan

1900 BCE

The Head of Hammurabi

1790 BCE

Prologue to Law Code of Hammurabi

1780 BCE

The First Law of the Land: if any one ensnare another, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death

Law Code of Hammurabi

Hammurabi, 1754 BCE

Law Code of Hammurabi

1750 BCE

The Liver Tablet

1600 BCE

Funerary Male Portrait

1500 BCE

King Untash-Napirisha Axe Head

1300 BCE

Action and inaction will both destroy you in the end

The Dialogue of Pessimism

1000 BCE

The Oldest Love Poem

800 BCE

The Gilgamesh Flood Tablet

700 BCE

Chogha Zanbil

1250 BCE-640 BCE

Baal Stele

c. 1450
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Norte Chico Civilization

The oldest civilization in the Americas

3500 BCE-1800 BCE

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