Trivium Art History
The Artists

Giorgio de Chirico1888 — 1978

Enchanted space in the city of Nietzsche

Enchanted space in the city of Nietzsche

Giorgio de Chirico was born to an Italian family living in Greece and studied in Athens, Florence and Munich, where he was influenced by Nietzsche's philosophy and Arnold Böcklin's Symbolist art. In 1910, de Chirico moved to Paris where he made contact with Picasso and befriended Guillaume Apollinaire, French poet and leader of the avant-gardistic movement rejecting poetic traditions in outlook, rhythm, and language. In Paris he began to produce highly troubling dreamlike pictures of deserted cities, eg. The Great TowerThe Soothsayer's RecompenseMystery and Melancholy of a Street — pictures with fantastic combinations of images that carried a charge of mystery, and repteted use of haunting iconography.

In 1917 in the Ferrara military hospital, de Chirico met the painter Carlo Carrà, and together they founded Metaphysical painting. Although the movement was short-lived, it was perhaps the most original and important movement in the Italian art of the 20th century, and considered by critics the highest point in de Chirico's painting career. De Chirico's Metaphysical paintings were hugely influential on Surrealist artists, who recognized in them the eloquent expression of the unconscious and nonsensical to which they themselves aspired. In 1918 de Chirico and Carrà contributed to the periodical Valori Plastici which gave a literary aspect to Metaphysical painting.

By the 1930s, however, de Chirico renounced all his previous work and reverted to an academic style, and to his study of the techniques of the old masters. His great interest in archeology and history took the form of Neo-Baroque paintings full of horses, still-lifes, and portraits. The Surrealists, in particular, condemned his later work.

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The Song of Love

The Song of Love

1914
Christ and the Storm

Christ and the Storm

1914
The Philosopher's Conquest

The Philosopher's Conquest

1914
Turin Spring

Turin Spring

1914
The Grand Metaphysician

The Grand Metaphysician

1917
The Disquieting Muse

The Disquieting Muse

1916-1918
The Terrible Games

The Terrible Games

1925
The Painter's Family

The Painter's Family

1926
Archaeologists

Archaeologists

1926
The Two Masks

The Two Masks

1926
Le Rive Della Tessaglia

Le Rive Della Tessaglia

1926
The Archaeologists

The Archaeologists

1927
The Eventuality of Destiny

The Eventuality of Destiny

1927
La Cohorte Invincible

La Cohorte Invincible

1928
Cavalli

Cavalli

1930
Cavalli in Riva al Mare

Cavalli in Riva al Mare

1934
Bathers on the Beach

Bathers on the Beach

1934

America is no longer a new world but is, and always will be, another world. It is ... a question of molecules, of climate, of different atmosphere, of the special quality of the sun’s rays.

I have been to New York

1938

It is often said of a picture: this picture is not extraordinary, it is nothing remarkable, but “it shows great sensitiveness”.

Sensitiveness

1944
Self Portrait in Black Costume

Self Portrait in Black Costume

1948
The Divine Horses

The Divine Horses

1963
The divine horses of Achilles, Balios and Xanthos

The divine horses of Achilles, Balios and Xanthos

1963
Piazza d'Italia

Piazza d'Italia

1964
The Prodigal Son

The Prodigal Son

1965
The Mute Orpheus

The Mute Orpheus

1971
1801
Sometimes a flower is just a flower
Georgia O'Keeffe
A painter of inner and outer worlds
Marc Chagall
Giorgio de Chirico
Prophet of the violent, industrial future
Antonio Sant'Elia
Dissecting the 'new woman' through collage
Hannah Höch
2000

The artists of Surrealism

The artists of Futurism