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Hardboard

High-density fiberboard, also called hardboard, is a material made from small wood fibers compressed into a solid mass. Long used in furnature and construction, hardboard has become a popular surface for paintings, since it is study, cheap, and comes with a perfectly smooth surface. Hardboard is often referred to by the name of one of its more popular brands: Masonite.

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Migration Series No.13: The crops were left to dry and rot. There was no one to tend them

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.45: The migrants arrived in Pittsburgh, one of the great industrial centers of the North

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.24: Their children were forced to work in the fields. They could not go to school

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.56: The African American professionals were forced to follow their clients in order to make a living

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.3: From every southern town migrants left by the hundreds to travel north

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.35: They left the South in great numbers. They arrived in the North in great numbers

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.14: For African Americans there was no justice in the southern courts

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.46: Industries boarded their workers in unhealthy quarters. Labor camps were numerous

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.25: They left their homes. Soon some communities were left almost empty

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.57: The female workers were the last to arrive north

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.4: All other sources of labor having been exhausted, the migrants were the last resource

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.36: Migrants arrived in Chicago, the gateway to the West

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.15: There were lynchings

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.47: As the migrant population grew, good housing became scarce. Workers were forced to live in overcrowded and dilapidated tenement houses

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.26: And people all over the South continued to discuss this great movement

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.58: In the North the African American had more educational opportunities

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.5: Migrants were advanced passage on the railroads, paid for by northern industry. Northern industry was to be repaid by the migrants out of their future wages

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.37: Many migrants found work in the steel industry

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.16: After a lynching the migration quickened

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.48: Housing was a serious problem

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.27: Many men stayed behind until they could take their families north with them

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.59: In the North they had the freedom to vote

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.6: The trains were crowded with migrants

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.38: They also worked on the railroads

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.17: Tenant farmers received harsh treatment at the hands of the planter

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.49: They found discrimination in the North. It was a different kind

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.28: The labor agent sent south by northern industry was a familiar presence in the Black communities

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.60: And the migrants kept coming

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.7: The migrant, whose life had been rural and nurtured by the earth, was now moving to urban life dependent on industrial machinery

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.39: Railroad platforms were piled high with luggage

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.18: The migration gained in momentum

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.50: Race riots were numerous. White workers were hostile toward the migrant who had been hired to break strikes

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.29: The labor agent recruited unsuspecting laborers as strike breakers for northern industries

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.8: Some left because of promises of work in the North. Others left because their farms had been devastated by floods

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.40: The migrants arrived in great numbers

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.19: There had always been discrimination

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.51: African Americans seeking to find better housing attempted to move into new areas. This resulted in the bombing of their new homes

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.30: In every southern home people met to decide whether or not to go north

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.9: They left because the boll weevil had ravaged the cotton crop

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.41: The South was desperate to keep its cheap labor. Northern labor agents were jailed or forced to operate in secrecy

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.20: In many of the communities the Black press was read with great interest. It encouraged the movement

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.52: One of the most violent race riots occurred in East St. Louis

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.31: The migrants found improved housing when they arrived north

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.10: They were very poor

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.42: To make it difficult for the migrants to leave, they were arrested en masse. They often missed their trains

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.21: Families arrived at the station very early. They did not wish to miss their trains north

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.53: African Americans, long-time residents of northern cities, met the migrants with aloofness and disdain

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.32: The railroad stations in the South were crowded with northbound travelers

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.11: Food had doubled in price because of the war

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941

Migration Series No.43: In a few sections of the South leaders of both Black and White communities met to discuss ways of making the South a good place to live

Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941
More Art Mediums

Ink

From the caves to the desktop

Pencil

Lithography

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