In 1797 Francisco Goya created 80 etchings that laid out a scathing critique of pre-enlightenment Spain, illustrating the damaging effects of superstition, arraigned marriage, and a wasteful ruling class.
Goya’s Los Caprichos was a tour-de-force second only to his Horrors of War. Plate #43 of Los Ccaprichos is called The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters — a sleeping man haunted by a chaotic flock of wide-eyed owls, animals symbolizing mystery and evil in Spanish folklore. The epigraph for the work contains a warning:
“Fantasy abandoned by reason produces impossible monsters: united with reason, fantasy is the mother of the arts and the origin of their marvels.”