Breaking free of the naturalism of Impressionism in the late 1880s, a group of young painters sought independent artistic styles for expressing emotions rather than simply optical impressions, concentrating on themes of deeper symbolism. Through the use of simplified colors and definitive forms, their art was characterized by a renewed aesthetic sense as well as abstract tendencies. Among the nascent generation of artists responding to Impressionism, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat, Vincent van Gogh, and the eldest of the group, Paul Cézanne, followed diverse stylistic paths in search of authentic intellectual and artistic achievements. These artists, often working independently, did not view themselves as part of a collective movement. It was not until Roger Fry's seminal exhibition Manet and the Post-Impressionists at London's Grafton Galleries in 1910, that this group of artists were categorized as "Post-Impressionists."