Obelisk Art History
Middle Ages

Byzantine Art
The proliferation of Christian art

Byzantine Art, Middle AgesFloor Mosaic with Ktisis

On a cold day in February 313 CE, Licinius the First and Constantine the First met in Milan. Licinius and Constantine were both emperors of Rome, embroiled in what would later be called the Civil wars of the Tetrarchy. Constantine would eventually triumph, and hang Licinius eleven years later, but for now the competing emperors were at peace, meeting to sign the Edict of Milan. The Edict was a radical document — a statement of religious freedom, ending centuries of persecution of fringe religions within the Roman Empire, granting: “to the Christians and others full authority to observe that religion which each preferred.”

And so began the Byzantine age, which was defined by the extraordinary growth of the Christian religion out from the Byzantine empire’s heart in Constantinople, and the development of Christian icons, churches and artwork throughout Europe and modern-day Turkey. Byzantine art evolved significantly over the course of it’s more than 1000 year run, and is now broken down into three periods. Early Byzantine (c. 330–750), saw a departure from the naturalism of Roman art, and a fixation of the heavenly. Flat-faced saints float on gilded ethereal backgrounds. Middle Byzantine (c. 850–1204) was heavily influenced by the beginnings of Russian Orthodox Christianity, and economic prosperity encouraged more elaborate architecture and decorative objects. Late Byzantine (c. 1261–1453) was a twilight time for the Byzantine empire, after the invasion of European crusaders damaged trade and infrastructure.

Byzantine art was the dominant visual language in Europe for much of the Middle Ages, due to the Byzantine Empire’s centuries in power, and the massive wealth and industry accumulated in Constantinople. The formal, classical Byzantine styles were widely imitated though Europe, and influenced the localized movements like the Carolingian and Romanesque, that we refer to collectively as Early Medieval Art. As a rule, Byzantine art is highly polished and very formal, and Early Medieval Art is its wilder, messier cousin.


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Reed Enger, "Byzantine Art, The proliferation of Christian art," in Obelisk Art History, Published May 23, 2017; last modified July 20, 2019, http://arthistoryproject.com/timeline/middle-ages/byzantine-art/.

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For the sake of the peace of our times, each one may have the free opportunity to worship as he pleases

The Edict of Milan

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Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Byzantine Art

Mausoleum of Galla Placidia

450 CE
Arian Baptistery, Byzantine Art

Arian Baptistery

Theodoric the Great, 400 CE-500 CE
Baptistry of Neon, Byzantine Art

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Bishop Ursus, 400 CE-500 CE
Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Byzantine Art

Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo

Theodoric the Great, 504 CE-504 CE
Mausoleum of Theoderic, Byzantine Art

Mausoleum of Theoderic

520 CE
Hagia Sophia, Byzantine Art

Hagia Sophia

Anthemius and Isidore the Elder, 537 CE
Basilica of San Vitale, Byzantine Art

Basilica of San Vitale

Bishop Ecclesius, 526 CE-547 CE
Floor Mosaic with Ktisis, Byzantine Art

Floor Mosaic with Ktisis

500 CE-550 CE
Torcello Cathedral, Byzantine Art

Torcello Cathedral

639 CE
Palace of Theodoric, Byzantine Art

Palace of Theodoric

700 CE
Casket with Warriors and Dancers, Byzantine Art

Casket with Warriors and Dancers

Next Movement
Medieval Art, Middle Ages

Medieval Art

Religion, feudalism and lots of gold leaf.

476 CE-1492

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