Vanitas is a loose category of artwork that illustrates the transience of life, the futility of pleasure, and the certainty of death — often featuring heavy-handed allegory in the form of skulls, insects, rotting plants, candles burning low and hourglasses draining out a last few grains of sand. Vanitas paintings are so called for the verse in Ecclesiastes 1:2; 12:8 from the King James Bible: Vanitas vanitatum omnia vanitas, "Vanity of vanities, all is vanity." It's also thought that vanitas artwork allowed artists during religious eras like the Nothern Renaissance a sneaky excuse to paint still-lives of beautiful, decadent objects behind a moral facade.

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Vanitas Still-life

Maria van Oosterwijck, 1668
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