Trivium Art History
The Artists

Joshua Johnson1763 — 1824

Who was Joshua Johnson?

Who was Joshua Johnson?

Unknown for 100 years

In the early 1800’s an itinerant artist painted a series of moody, arresting portraits of the Maryland elite. For more than a century the artist of these naïve portraits was unknown — until in 1939 the historian J. Hall Pleasants attributed them to a mysterious man named Joshua Johnson.

It took until 1996 for any real information about Johnson to emerge, when the Maryland Historical Society's Department of Manuscripts discovered local historical records describing the sale and freeing of slaves. The documents included the manumission record of a young slave named Joshua Johnson.

Discovering Joshua Johnson

Joshua Johnson was the son of George Johnson, a white man, and a black slave woman who’s name was undocumented. George purchased his son from his mother’s owner for 25 pounds, and promised to free him on his 21st birthday or on the completion of an apprenticeship to a blacksmith. Joshua Johnson was freed in 1782, and was listed shortly after as a portrait painter in the Baltimore city directories.

We have no records of Johnson’s artistic training, and little knowledge of his life outside of his formal portraits and the calm, direct gaze of his sitters. Johnson appears a few more times in Maryland records, where we learn he married twice, and had four children. We don’t know where he died, or if he made any portraits outside of Baltimore, and the only words we have from the artist himself is from an advertisement Johnson posted in the Baltimore Intelligencer newspaper published on December 19, 1798. Johnson describes himself as a self-taught genius, who had “experienced many insuperable obstacles in the pursuit of his studies.”

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Family Group

Family Group

1800
Edward and Sarah Rutter

Edward and Sarah Rutter

1805
Sarah Ogden Gustin

Sarah Ogden Gustin

1805
Portrait of Adelia Ellender

Portrait of Adelia Ellender

1803-1805
Grace Allison McCurdy and her Daughters, Mary Jane and Letitia Grace

Grace Allison McCurdy and her Daughters, Mary Jane and Letitia Grace

1806
Adelina Morton

Adelina Morton

1810
Portrait of Abner Coker

Portrait of Abner Coker

1805-1810
Sea Captain John Murphy

Sea Captain John Murphy

1810
Mrs. Barbara Baker Murphy

Mrs. Barbara Baker Murphy

1810
John Jacob Anderson and Sons, John and Edward

John Jacob Anderson and Sons, John and Edward

1812-1815
1701
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Antonio Canova
The masters' master
Katsushika Hokusai
Joshua Johnson
The inventor of Photography
Nicéphore Niépce
A phenom works himself to death
Anne-Louis Girodet
1900