In 1305, Pope Clement V moved the home of the Roman Catholic Church from Rome, to Avignon in France — a controversial move that eventually caused a split in the church known as the Western Schism.
During this political turmoil, Cardinal Giacomo Stefaneschi commissioned Giotto to create a glorious altarpiece for the church of St. Peter's in Rome. The altarpiece is painted front and back, with the center panel depicting St. Peter on the front and Christ on the back. Interesting, Stefaneschi himself is depicted on both sides, kneeling at the right foot of both Peter and the Christ.
Though the altarpiece is signed by Giotto, scholars believe it was completed by his workshop.