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The Copernican World System

Andreas Cellarius

The first space race

Science vs. Religion

It was the first space race — did the sun orbit the earth or did the earth orbit the sun? In the 1600’s it was up for grabs. The greatest minds in science and religion waged a war of observation and ideology to try and answer the question: what is our true place in the universe?

In this turbulent environment worked Andreas Cellarius, a cartographer and the president of a latin school in Hoorn, in North Holland. We don’t know much about Cellarius — his birth, his death, and that he was interested in the mathematics of fortified walls and liked to write poetry about his fellow teachers.

An atlas for the universe

But in 1660, Andreas Cellarius published a truly unique document. Cellarius worked with the engraver and portraitist Frederick Hendrick Van Hove, and the cartographer Johannes van Loon to compile the known history of astronomical systems into a single star atlas. Every competing theory and philosophy of the cosmos in a single, beautiful volume. He called it the Harmonia Macrocosmica.

The Harmonia Macrocosmica covered 1500 years of astronomical theory. It begins with Ptolemy’s Almagest star catalog from 150 A.D., the oldest surviving comprehensive document of celestial motion. The Macrocosmica then describes the renaissance theories of Nicolaus Copernicus, who’s 1543 book On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres made the dramatic statement that the earth orbited the sun, and became a cornerstone of the scientific revolution. The Macrocosmica continues to catelog Tyco Brahe’s planisphere — a “geo-heliocentric” system where the Sun and Moon orbit the Earth, and the other planets orbit the Sun.

The final pages of the Macrocosmica leave science behind in a series of colorful and imaginative depictions of the constellations — Greek, Roman and the later Christian icons. It’s a sweeping and stunningly beautiful work, criticized in it’s time for refusing to take a side in the debate of sun vs earth, science vs religion. But to criticize the Macrocosmica is to misunderstand its purpose — it wasn’t telling us how the universe works, it was showing how we see ourselves in it.

Reed Enger, "Andreas Cellarius, The first space race," in Obelisk Art History, Published May 10, 2016; last modified May 28, 2020, http://arthistoryproject.com/artists/andreas-cellarius/.

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Harmonia Macrocosmica Plate 1 — The Planisphere of Ptolemy

1660

The Sizes of the Celestial Bodies

1660

Harmonia Macrocosmica Plate 11 — The Location of the Earth

1660

Harmonia Macrocosmica Plate 12 — Upright and Oblique Spheres

1660

Hemisphere of the Old World

1660

The Ptolemaic hypothesis, demonstrating the planetary motions

1660

Harmonia Macrocosmica Plate 15 — Opposition and Conjunction of the Planets

1660

The Sun in an eccentric orbit without epicycles

1660

The Revolution of the Sun around the Earth

1660

The Moon in an eccentric orbit with epicycles

1660

The varying phases and appearances of the Moon

1660

The Ptolemaic Cosmography

1660

Harmonia Macrocosmica Plate 20 — Mars, Jupiter & Saturn

1660

Harmonia Macrocosmica Plate 21 — Venus and Mercury

1660

Harmonia Macrocosmica Plate 22 — First Hemisphere

1660

Harmonia Macrocosmica Plate 23 — Second Hemisphere

1660

Harmonia Macrocosmica Plate 24 — Northern Stellar Hemisphere

1660

Harmonia Macrocosmica Plate 25 — Celestial and Terrestrial Hemispheres

1660

Harmonia Macrocosmica Plate 26 — Northern Stellar Hemisphere

1660

The Southern Stellar Hemisphere

1660

Harmonia Macrocosmica Plate 28 — Southern Hemisphere

1660

Harmonia Macrocosmica Plate 29 — Southern Stellar and Terrestrial Hemisphere

1660

Planetary Orbits Encompassing the Earth

1660

The Copernicus Planisphere

1660

The Copernican World System

1660

The Tycho Brahe Planisphere

1660

Harmonia Macrocosmica Plate 7 — Brahe's Construction of the World

1660

The Planisphere of Aratus

1660

Harmonia Macrocosmica Plate 9 — Brahe’s Altitudes of the Planets

1660

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